Reports indicate that approximately two million women develop breast or cervical cancer each year, and these rates continue to increase. Though not as common, ovarian cancer – the fifth most common cancer in women – causes more deaths than any other type of female reproductive cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute, to date in 2011 there have been an estimated 21,990 new cases of ovarian cancer, and 15,460 deaths due to the disease. Making women aware of the possible symptoms of ovarian cancer and encouraging them to have routine gynecological appointments may help to improve rates of diagnosis of the condition.
While nearly one in three women will develop breast cancer in their lifetime, one in seven will develop ovarian cancer, but detection and diagnosis is significantly more difficult in ovarian cancer. The symptoms associated with ovarian cancer are often vague, and are commonly associated with other common conditions. According to experts, women should see their doctor if they experience bloating, difficulty eating or feeling full quickly, and pelvic or abdominal pain on a daily basis for more than a few weeks. Because of the difficulty detecting ovarian cancer, it is frequently not detected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen. In its late stages it is often fatal, but if diagnosis is made early and treatment is received before the cancer spreads outside of the ovary, the 5-year survival rate is very high. In order to combat difficulties diagnosing ovarian cancer, researchers are working to develop new flureoscence-guided techniques that may make it possible to identify very small tumors that may have been missed using traditional detection methods.
All women are at risk of developing ovarian cancer, but approximately 90 percent of women who get the disease are 40 years of age or older, with the greatest number of cases occurring in women aged 60 and older. Women who have children earlier in life have a decreased risk of developing ovarian cancer, while those who have a personal history of breast cancer or a family history of breast or ovarian cancer have an increased risk. Once ovarian cancer has been positively diagnosed, as with other cancers, it is most often treated surgically. This frequently involves the removal of the uterus, both ovaries and fallopian tubes, and/or removal of the lymph nodes. In addition to the surgical removal of tumors, individuals with ovarian cancer may undergo chemotherapy, however radiation therapy is seldom used in the United States to treat ovarian cancer.
Though difficult to diagnose, if treated quickly ovarian cancer can be beaten. By encouraging women to monitor their health and communicate any concerns to their physician, it may be possible to identify cases more quickly and improve treatment outcomes.