Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection has become increasingly common in recent years, due in large part to overuse of antibiotics. According to a 2007 report in Emerging Infectious Diseases, a publication of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the average number of MRSA infections doubled nationwide between 1999 and 2005 – from 127,000 to 278,000. During the same period, the number of annual deaths from MRSA infection increased from 11,000 to more than 17,000. By increasing awareness about the risk factors associated with and steps that can be taken to avoid MRSA infection, it may be possible to reduce or eliminate its spread.
MRSA infection is caused by a strain of Staphylococcus (staph) bacteria that has become resistant to the antibiotics commonly used to treat staph infections, which include methicillin and penicillin. Generally, MRSA is spread through skin-to-skin contact, openings in the skin (cuts or abrasions), contact with contaminated surfaces, crowded living conditions, or poor hygiene. MRSA frequently manifests first on the skin as a reddish rash with lesions resembling pimples which may begin to drain pus, or lead to cellulitis, abscesses, and impetigo. In addition, the initial skin infection can spread to almost any other organ in the body, resulting in more serious symptoms and potential complications.
Designations are made between types of MRSA infection based on the location where the infection took place. Hospital-acquired MRSA (also called health-care-acquired, HA-MRSA, or HMRSA) remains one of the most common types of infection. Individuals who are hospitalized, those with invasive medical devices such as catheters, and those residing in nursing homes are at an increased risk of acquiring HA-MRSA. Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA or CMRSA) is another common type of infection, and is seen most frequently in individuals participating in contact sports or those living in crowded or unsanitary conditions. While the average adult death rate among individuals with MRSA is estimated at five percent of infected patients, individuals with HA-MRSA are at an increased risk of experiencing complications including organ damage.
Dr. Marc Siegel, an associated professor of medicine at New York University, and others recommend an evaluation of the overuse of antibiotics by humans as well as in livestock as a means of eradicating MRSA and reducing drug resistance in other strains of bacteria. In addition, experts note the importance of good hygiene practices including washing hands frequently, keeping wounds covered with bandages until they have healed, and washing soiled clothes and sheets in hot water can help to prevent the spread of MRSA. The timely diagnosis of individuals infected with MRSA achieved through an analysis of a skin sample helps to better ensure not only treatment for the individual, but also a decreased risk of infecting others.
Discuss this and other public health topics in the iCons in Medicine Forums